3

 
 computer
programming includes all
those activities that are involved in creating and
maintaining the source code,
viz., designing, writing,
testing and debugging the
source code of any given
program. A computer program is a set of
instructions that are
developed and written in such
a way that it gets the
computer to perform a
specific set of tasks. These instructions, specifications and
performance requirements,
that are written to form a
program, constitute of the
source code of the program.
That, I suppose, gives a brief idea on what computer
programs and computer
programming is all about.
Now, let's proceed towards
understanding languages in a
little detail. Programming Languages A programming language is a
description, measurement or
expression of processes or
algorithms which includes
digital as well as non digital
data that can be performed by computing machines.
Programming languages are
created for a large number of
purposes but the basic logic
behind their creation is
common - they serve to control and regulate the
behavior and performance of
such computing machines
with regards to their desired
output. All programming
languages have two basic components - syntax and
semantics. The syntax is the
form or arrangement of
symbols and characters typical
to a particular language.
Semantics deal with the meaning that a set of
characters convey when
arranged in a particular way.
For instance, let's look at a
couple of simple programming
languages examples to get an idea of syntax and semantics
with relation to
programming. Simple C++ Program
Example Syntax:
#include
using namespace std;
int main()
{
cout < "Good Morning!\n"; return 0;
}
Semantic:
Good Morning! Simple COBOL Program
Example Syntax:
DISPLAY "Good Morning".
STOP RUN
Semantics:
  Types of Programming
 There are two basic
types of programming
languages based upon the
level of abstraction from the
architecture of the computer's
instruction set. These two types of programming
languages are high level
language and low-level
language. High level languages
are farthest in similarity from
machine syntaxes and most of these languages make use of
real world language elements.
As such, high level languages
are more user-friendly and
offer larger portability across
various platforms. These languages are characterized by
the conspicuous visible
absence of CPU processing
details such as scope
management and models for
memory access. In order for the computing machine to
understand and process the
inputs of the user, conveyed
through high level language,
such languages usually
undergo any of the three types of programs -
interpreters, compilers or
translators - to get converted
into an executable form.
Common examples of high
level language are Java, C and C++. Low level languages are
the closest in form to the
computer's internal machine
code and are, therefore, easily
and readily executed by the
computer without having to involve intermediary
conveying programs like
translators, compilers and
interpreters. 1GL and 2GL are

examples of common
programming languages of this category. Computer Programming Languages: List by Category There are over 700
programming languages that
have been developed till date!
Let's look at a categorized list of programming languages that includes some of the
most prominent and popular
languages listed under
different categories. Array Programming
Languages Fortran Analytica Chapel APL FISh F A+ F-Script Fortress IDL J K PDL R NESL MATLAB (Matrix
Laboratory) S-Lang Octave Nial SAC ZPL X10 Aspect Oriented
Programming Languages AspectLua AspectJ CaesarJ Object Teams E Aspect C++ Compose Authoring Programming
Languages PILOT Bigwig TUTOR Coursewriter Assembly Languages ASEM-51 AKI ASCENT ASPER BAL C-- COMPASS Emu8086 EDTASM FAP FASM GAS HLA HLASM LC-3 Linoleum MACRO-11 MACRO-20 MACRO-32 MASM MI MIPS Motorola 68KAssembly of
CPUs NASM NEAT PAL-III PASM RosAsm Sphinx TASM Yasm Command Line Interface
Programming Languages 4DOS .bat Windows PowerShell CHAIN CLIST DCL DOS Batch Language CMS EXEC EXEC 2 JCL sh csh Ch tcsh bash ksh zsh Rc Es shell REXX SCLI SsCLI TACL Compiled Programming
Languages Ada ALGOL Ateji PX BASIC C C++ C# CLEO CLIPPER 5.3 Clush COBOL CLisp Cobra Corn Curl D DASL Delphi DIBOL Dylan dylan.NET Ecere C Eiffel Factor Forth Fortran Go Haskell Harbour Java JOVIAL LabVIEW Nemerle Objective-C Pascal Plus ppC++ Python RPG Scheme SmallTalk ML Turing Urq Visual Basic Visual FoxPro Visual Prolog WinDev X++ XL Z++ Concurrent Programming
Languages Ada ChucK Cilk C Omega Clojure ConcurrentLua Concurrent Pascal Corn Curry E Eiffel Erlang Go Java Join-Calculus Joule Limbo MultiLisp occam Oz Pict SALSA Scala SR Dataflow Programming
Languages Hartman Pipelines G Lucid Max Prograph Pure Data Vee VisSim WebMethods Flow Monk Oz VHDL Data Oriented
Programming Languages Clarion Clipper dBase MUMPS SPARQL SQL Tutorial D Visual FoxPro WebQL Educational Programming
Languages Scratch Etoys Squeak BlueJ Greenfoot NetBeans Scheme Logo Common Lisp newLISP Gambas SiMPLE Microsoft Small Basic BASIC-256 Visual Basic .Net (one of
the most popular
computer programming
langauges for beginners) Alice AgentSheets Baltie E-Slate CiMPLE Hackey Hack Guido van Robot Kodu Karel Mama Pascal Lego Mindstorms RoboMind Phrogram Stagecast Creator Curry Haskel A++ Oz Qi II M2001 Data Structured
Programming Languages dBase SQL Clarion MUMPS SPARQL Fox Pro Clipper WebQL Declarative Programming
Languages Ant Lustre Modelica xBase MetaPost DASL XSL Transformations Prolog Poses++ Extension Programming
Languages Ateji PX AutoLISP CAL C/AL DML Guile Lua OptimJ Python REXX Ruby S-Lang SQL Tcl Vimscript VBA Windows PowerShell Esoteric Programming
Languages Whitespace Chef Klingon Befunge Shakespeare LOLCODE FALSE Piet INTERCAL Malbolge SNUSP Functional Programming
Languages Charity Curl Clean F# Haskell Lisp Hop Mathematica ML Erlang R Spreadsheets Kite OPS5 Opal Logic Oriented
Programming Languages Leda Janus Poplog Oz Fril CLACL ROOP Alma-0 Fourth Generation
Commercial Environment
Programming Languages FOCUS MARK-IV Oracle Express 4GL SAS XML mosaic Aubit 4GL CorVision Uniface LINC 4GL ABAP Ubercode xBase MAPPER Visual DataFlex Today Visual FoxPro Machine Programming
Languages UltraSPARC Motorola 6800 Intel 8008/8080/8085 StrongARM ARM Commodore 64 CPU MIPS R2000/ R3000 National 32032 Interactive Mode
Programming Languages BASIC Clojure CLisp Erlang F# Forth FPr Fril Haskell IDL Lua MUMPS Maple MATLAB ML Mythryl Perl PostScript Python R REXX Ruby Scala Scheme SmallTalk S-Lang Tcl Windows PowerShell Interpreted Programming
Languages Ant APL AutoHotkey Autolt BASIC Databus Eiffel Forth FPr Frink GML Groovy Haskell J LISP LPC Lua Lush MUMPS Maple Pascal Perl Pikt PostScript Python REXX R Ruby S-Lang Spin TorqueScript thinBasic VBScript Windowes PowerShell XMLmosaic Iterative Programming
Languages Aldor Alphard C# CLU Cobra Eiffel Icon IPL-v Lua Lush Python Sather XL List Based Programming
Languages FPr Joy Lisp Lush R TCl TRAC Little Languages apply awk Comet SQL Macro Programming
Languages cpp m4 PHP SMX Meta programming
Languages C++ Curl D Forth Haskell Lisp Lua Maude System MetaL MetaOCaml Nemerle Perl Python ruby SmallTalk XL Multiparadigm
Programming Languages Ada ALF Alma APL BETA C++ C# ChucK Cobra CLisp Corn Curl Curry D Delphi Dylan ECMAScript Eiffel F Fantom FPr Harbour Hop J LabVIEW Lasso Lava Leda Lua Metaobject protocols Mythryl Nemerle Objective Camrl Oz Object Pascal Perl PHP Pliant Poplog ppC++ Prograph Python R REBOL ROOP Ruby Scala Seed 7 SISAL Spreadsheets Tcl Windows PowerShell XL Numerical Analysis
Programming Languages Algae AMPL GAMS MATLAB Seneca Non-English Based
Programming Languages ARLOGO Chinese BASIC Fjölnir HPL Lexico Rapira Glagol Portugol Object Oriented Class
Based Programming
Languages CLisp Dylan Goo Cecil Actor Ada 95 BETA C++ Chrome ChucK Cobra ColdFusion Corn Curl D DASL Delphi dylan.NET E Ecere C Eiffel F-Script Fortran Fortress FPr GAMBAS GML Harbour j Java Kite LabVIEW Lava Lua Modula-2 Moto Nemerle NetRexx Oberon-2 Object Pascal Object Caml Perl 5 PHP Pliant ppC++ Prograph Python Revolution Ruby Scala Seccia Simula SmallTalk SPIN SuperCollider VBScript Visual DataFlex Visual FoxPro Visual Prolog X++ XOTcl Object Oriented Prototype
Based Programming
Languages ABCL/1/R/R2/c plus Agora cecil ECMAScript Etoys Glyphic script Io Lisaac Lua MOO NewtonScript Obliq R REBOL Self Slate TADS OFFSide Rule Programming
Languages ISWIM ABC Hyper Talk Ivy Miranda Occam Pliant SPIn XL Procedural Programming
Languages Ada ALGOL Alma-0 BASIC BLISS C C++ C# ChucK Cobra COBOL ColdFusion Component Pascal Curl D DASL dylan.NET Delphi Ecere C ECMAScript Eiffel Fortran FPC Pascal Harbour Hyper Talk Java JOVIAL Lasso Modula-2 Oberon Oberon-2 MATLAB MUMPS Nemerle Occam Pascal PCASTL Perl PL/C PL/I Plus Python R Rapira RPG S-Lang VBScript Visual Basic Visual FoxPro X++ XL XMLmosaic Reflective Languages Aspect Oriented Befunge C## ChucK Cobra Component Pascal Black
Box Component Builder Cobra Curl Delphi ECMAScript Eiffel Forth Harbour Java Lisp Lua Maude System .NET FCLR Oberon-2 Objective-C PCASTL Perl PHP Pico Pliant Poplog Prolog Python REBOL Ruby SmallTalk SNOBOL Tcl X++ XL Rule Based Programming
Languages CLIPS Constraint Handling Rules Jess OPS5 Prolog Poses++ Scripting Languages AppleScript AWK BeanShell Ch CLIST ColdFusion ECMAScript CMS EXEC EXEC 2 F-Script Falcon Frink GML ICI Io JASS Groovy Join Java Tea Lua MEL Mythryl Perl PHP Pikt Python R REBOL REXX Revolution Ruby SmallTalk S-Lang Se Tcl TorqueScript VBScript Windows PowerShell Winbatch Stack Based Programming
Languages Cat colorForth Factor Forth Joy Piet Poplog PostScript RPL Urq Synchronous
Programming Languages Argos Averest Esterel LEA Lustre Signal SynchCharts Syntax Handling
Programming Languages ANTLR Coco/R GNU bison GNU Flex Lex M4 yacc JavaCC Rats! Visual Programming
Languages CODE Eiffel Fabrik LabVIEW Lava Limnor Mindscript Max NXT-G PPL Prograph Pure Data Quartz Composer Scratch Simulink Spreadsheets Subtext Tinkertoy VEE VisSim ww EICASLAB Niklaus Wirth
Programming Languages ALGOL W Modula Modula-2 (Obliq based on
Modula 3) Oberon Oberon-2 Oberon-07 Object Pascal XML Based Programming
Languages Ant C Omega Jelly LZX MXML XQuery XSLT XMLmosaic It is common for many
programming languages to
fall under multiple categories
based upon their structure,
function, orientation or any
other criteria. A programming language's popularity depends
upon these versatilities and
functionalities. Latest Programming Languages The following programming
languages were developed in
the years starting from 2000.
Let's take a look at this list of
the most recently developed
programming languages. Alma-0 Aspect-J Ada 2005 Boo C# Cobra Clojure D F# Fantom Factor Ferite Groovy Go Io Joy Join Java Kite Links Little b Nemerle OptimJ Oberon-07 Pure Squirrel Scala Subtext Visual Basic .Net Vala Windows PowerShell XL The programming languages
list provided here attempts to
include most of the common
programming languages in
major categories. Those who
are pursuing computer programming careers must be
aware of all other languages
belonging to various other
categories which have not
been elucidated in this article.
This article on programming languages list is an attempt to
enlist some of the most
commonly used, and recently
developed, programming
languages to give an idea on
the vast number and variety of programming languages
that are available for a wide
variety of programming
purposes and requirements.
Happy programming!

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